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This chapter introduces monitoring and  troubleshooting Cumulus Linux.


 This chapter covers ...

Using the Serial Console

The serial console can be a useful tool for debugging issues, especially when you find yourself rebooting the switch often or if you don’t have a reliable network connection.

The default serial console baud rate is 115200, which is the baud rate ONIE uses.

Configuring the Serial Console on ARM Switches

On ARM switches, the U-Boot environment variable baudrate identifies the baud rate of the serial console. To change the baudrate variable, use the fw_setenv command:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo fw_setenv baudrate 9600
Updating environment variable: `baudrate'
Proceed with update [N/y]? y

You must reboot the switch for the baudrate change to take effect.

The valid values for baudrate are:

  • 300
  • 600
  • 1200
  • 2400
  • 4800
  • 9600
  • 19200
  • 38400
  • 115200

Configuring the Serial Console on x86 Switches

On x86 switches, you configure serial console baud rate by editing grub.

Incorrect configuration settings in grub can cause the switch to be inaccessible via the console. Grub changes should be carefully reviewed before implementation.

The valid values for the baud rate are:

  • 300
  • 600
  • 1200
  • 2400
  • 4800
  • 9600
  • 19200
  • 38400
  • 115200

To change the serial console baud rate:

  1. Edit /etc/default/grub. The two relevant lines in /etc/default/grub are as follows; replace the 115200 value with a valid value specified above in the --speed variable in the first line and in the console variable in the second line:

    GRUB_SERIAL_COMMAND="serial --port=0x2f8 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1"              
    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="console=ttyS1,115200n8 cl_platform=accton_as5712_54x"
  2. After you save your changes to the grub configuration, type the following at the command prompt:

    cumulus@switch:~$ update-grub
  3. If you plan on accessing your switch's BIOS over the serial console, you need to update the baud rate in the switch BIOS. For more information, see this knowledge base article.

  4. Reboot the switch.

Getting General System Information

Two commands are helpful for getting general information about the switch and the version of Cumulus Linux you are running. These are helpful with system diagnostics and if you need to submit a support request to Cumulus Networks.

For information about the version of Cumulus Linux running on the switch, run net show version, which displays the contents of /etc/lsb-release:

cumulus@switch:~$ net show version
DISTRIB_ID="Cumulus Linux"
DISTRIB_DESCRIPTION="Cumulus Linux 3.2.1~1484951197.337c36a"

For general information about the switch, run net show system, which gathers information about the switch from a number of files in the system:

cumulus@switch:~$ net show system
Cumulus 3.2.1~1484951197.337c36a
Build: Cumulus Linux 3.2.1~1484951197.337c36a
Uptime: 4 days, 1:04:34

Diagnostics Using cl-support

You can use cl-support to generate a single export file that contains various details and the configuration from a switch. This is useful for remote debugging and troubleshooting.

You should run cl-support before you submit a support request to Cumulus Networks as this file helps in the investigation of issues:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-support -h
Usage: cl-support [-h] [-s] [-t] [-v] [reason]...
[reason]: Optional reason to give for invoking cl-support.
         Saved into tarball's cmdline.args file.
-h: Print this usage statement
-s: Security sensitive collection
-t: User filename tag
-v: Verbose
-e MODULES: Enable modules. Comma separated module list (run with -e help for module names)
-d MODULES: Disable modules. Comma separated module list (run with -d help for module names)

Example output:

cumulus@switch:~$ ls /var/support

The directory structure is compressed using LZMA2 compression and can be extracted using the tar command:

cumulus@switch:~$ cd /var/support
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo tar xf cl_support_20160527_140040.tar
cumulus@switch:~$ ls -l cl_support_20160529_140040/

-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 7724 May 27 14:00 cl-support
-rw-r--r--  1 root root   52 May 27 14:00 cmdline.args
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 May 27 14:00 core
drwxr-xr-x 64 root root 4096 May 27 13:51 etc
drwxr-xr-x  4 root root 4096 May 27 14:00 proc
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 May 27 14:01 support
drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4096 May 27 14:00 sys
drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4096 Mar  8 15:22 var

The directory contains the following elements:

coreContains the core files on the switch, including those generated from switchd.
etcIs a replica of the switch’s /etc directory. /etc contains all the general Linux configuration files, as well as configurations for the system’s network interfaces, quagga and other packages.
logIs a replica of the switch's /var/log directory. Most Cumulus Linux log files are located in this directory. Notable log files include switchd.log, daemon.log, quagga log files, and syslog. For more information, read this knowledge base article.
procIs a replica of the switch’s /proc directory. In Linux, /proc contains runtime system information (like system memory, devices mounted, and hardware configuration). These files are not actual files but the current state of the system.
supportIs a set of files containing further system information, which is obtained by cl-support running commands such as ps -aux, netstat -i, and so forth — even the routing tables.

cl-support, when untarred, contains a cmdline.args file. This file indicates what reason triggered it. When contacting Cumulus Networks technical support, please attach the cl-support file if possible. For more information about cl-support, read Understanding and Decoding the cl-support Output File.

If you have issues extracting the script with the tar command, like an error saying the file does not look like tar archive, try using the unxz command first:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo unxz cl_support_20130729_140040.tar.xz

You can save a lot of disk space and perhaps some time if you do not run unxz on the tar file.

Sending Log Files to a syslog Server

All logging on Cumulus Linux is done with rsyslogrsyslog provides both local logging to the syslog file as well as the ability to export logs to an external syslog server. High precision timestamps are enabled for all rsyslog log files; here's an example:

2015-08-14T18:21:43.337804+00:00 cumulus switchd[3629]: 
 switchd.c:1409 switchd version 1.0-cl2.5+5

Local logging: Most logs within Cumulus Linux are sent to files in the /var/log directory. Most relevant information is placed within the /var/log/syslog file. For more information on specific log files, see Troubleshooting Log Files

Export logging: To send syslog files to an external syslog server, add a rule specifying to copy all messages (*.*) to the IP address and switch port of your syslog server in the rsyslog configuration files as described below.

In the following example, is the remote syslog server and 514 is the port number. For UDP-based syslog, use a single @ before the IP address: @ For TCP-based syslog, use two @@ before the IP address: @@

  1. Create a file called something like /etc/rsyslog.d/90-remotesyslog.conf. Make sure it starts with a number lower than 99 so that it executes before 99-syslog.conf. Add content like the following:

    ## Copy all messages to the remote syslog server at port 514
    *.*                             @
  2. Restart rsyslog.

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl restart rsyslog.service

All Cumulus Linux rules are stored in separate files in /etc/rsyslog.d/, which are called at the end of the GLOBAL DIRECTIVES section of /etc/rsyslog.conf. As a result, the RULES section at the end of rsyslog.conf is ignored because the messages have to be processed by the rules in /etc/rsyslog.d and then dropped by the last line in /etc/rsyslog.d/99-syslog.conf.

In the case of the switchd rules file, the file must be numbered lower than 25. For example, 13-switchd-remote.conf.

If you need to send other log files (e.g. switchd logs) to a syslog server, configure a new file in /etc/rsyslog.d, as described above, and add lines similar to the following lines:

## Logging switchd messages to remote syslog server
$ModLoad imfile
$InputFileName /var/log/switchd.log
$InputFileStateFile logfile-log
$InputFileTag switchd:
$InputFileSeverity info
$InputFileFacility local7
$InputFilePollInterval 5

if $programname == 'switchd' then @

Then restart syslog:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl restart rsyslog.service

In the above configuration, each setting is defined as follows:

$ModLoad imfileEnables the rsyslog module to watch file contents.
$InputFileNameThe file to be sent to the syslog server. In this example, you are going to send changes made to /var/log/switchd.log to the syslog server.
$InputFileStateFileThis is used by rsyslog to track state of the file being monitored. This must be unique for each file being monitored.
$InputFileTagDefines the syslog tag that will precede the syslog messages. In this example, all logs are prefaced with switchd.
$InputFileSeverityDefines the logging severity level sent to the syslog server.
$InputFileFacilityDefines the logging format. local7 is common.
$InputFilePollIntervalDefines how frequently in seconds rsyslog looks for new information in the file. Lower values provide faster updates but create slightly more load on the CPU.
$InputRunFileMonitorEnables the file monitor module with the configured settings. 

In most cases, the settings to customize include:

$InputFileNameThe file to stream to the syslog server.
$InputFileStateFileA unique name for each file being watched.
$InputFileTagA prefix to the log message on the server.

Finally, the if $programname line is what sends the log files to the syslog server. It follows the same syntax as the /var/log/syslog file, where @ indicates UDP, is the IP address of the syslog server, and 514 is the UDP port. The value switchd must match the value in $InputFileTag

Harmless syslog Error: Failed to reset devices.list

The following message gets logged to /var/log/syslog when you run systemctl daemon-reload and during system boot:

systemd[1]: Failed to reset devices.list on /system.slice: Invalid argument

This message is harmless, and can be ignored. It is logged when systemd attempts to change cgroup attributes that are read only. The upstream version of systemd has been modified to not log this message by default.

The systemctl daemon-reload command is often issued when Debian packages are installed, so the message may be seen multiple times when upgrading packages.

Next Steps

The links below discuss more specific monitoring topics.