ifupdown is the network interface manager for Cumulus Linux. Cumulus Linux 2.1 and later uses an updated version of this tool, ifupdown2.

For more information on network interfaces, see Switch Port Attributes.

By default, ifupdown is quiet; use the verbose option -v when you want to know what is going on when bringing an interface down or up.

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Basic Commands

To bring up an interface or apply changes to an existing interface, run:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup <ifname>

To bring down a single interface, run:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown <ifname>

ifdown always deletes logical interfaces after bringing them down. Use the --admin-state option if you only want to administratively bring the interface up or down.

To see the link and administrative state, use the ip link show command:

cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show dev swp1 
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
    link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

In this example, swp1 is administratively UP and the physical link is UP (LOWER_UP flag). More information on interface administrative state and physical state can be found in this knowledge base article.

To put an interface into an admin down state. The interface remains down after any future reboots or applying configuration changes with ifreload -a. For example:

cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 link down

These commands create the following configuration in the /etc/network/interfaces file:

auto swp1
iface swp1
    link-down yes

ifupdown2 Interface Classes

ifupdown2 provides for the grouping of interfaces into separate classes, where a class is a user-defined label that groups interfaces sharing a common function (like uplink, downlink or compute). You specify classes in the /etc/network/interfaces file.

The most common class is auto, which you configure like this:

auto swp1
iface swp1

You can add other classes using the allow prefix. For example, if you have multiple interfaces used for uplinks, you can make up a class called uplinks:

auto swp1
allow-uplink swp1
iface swp1 inet static
    address 10.1.1.1/31

auto swp2
allow-uplink swp2
iface swp2 inet static
    address 10.1.1.3/31

This allows you to perform operations on only these interfaces using the --allow=uplinks option, or still use the -a options since these interfaces are also in the auto class:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup --allow=uplinks 
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a 

If you are using Management VRF, you can use the special interface class called mgmt, and put the management interface into that class.

The mgmt interface class is not supported if you are configuring Cumulus Linux using NCLU.

allow-mgmt eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
    vrf mgmt
  
allow-mgmt mgmt
iface mgmt
    address 127.0.0.1/8
    vrf-table auto

All ifupdown2 commands (ifupifdownifqueryifreload) can take a class. Include the --allow=<class> option when you run the command. For example, to reload the configuration for the management interface described above, run:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload --allow=mgmt 

You can easily bring up or down all interfaces marked with the common auto class in /etc/network/interfaces. Use the -a option. For further details, see individual man pages for ifup(8), ifdown(8), ifreload(8).

To administratively bring up all interfaces marked auto, run:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup -a

To administratively bring down all interfaces marked auto, run:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown -a

To reload all network interfaces marked auto, use the ifreload command, which is equivalent to running ifdown then ifup, the one difference being that ifreload skips any configurations that didn't change):

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a

Some syntax checks are done by default, however it may be safer to apply the configs only if the syntax check passes, using the following compound command:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo bash -c "ifreload -s -a && ifreload -a"

Configure a Loopback Interface

Cumulus Linux has a loopback preconfigured in /etc/network/interfaces. When the switch boots up, it has a loopback interface, called lo, which is up and assigned an IP address of 127.0.0.1.

The loopback interface lo must always be specified in /etc/network/interfaces and must always be up.

ifupdown Behavior with Child Interfaces

By default, ifupdown recognizes and uses any interface present on the system — whether a VLAN, bond or physical interface — that is listed as a dependent of an interface. You are not required to list them in the interfaces file unless they need a specific configuration, for MTU, link speed, and so forth. And if you need to delete a child interface, you should delete all references to that interface from the interfaces file.

For this example, swp1 and swp2 below do not need an entry in the interfaces file. The following stanzas defined in /etc/network/interfaces provide the exact same configuration:

With Child Interfaces Defined

auto swp1
iface swp1
 
auto swp2
iface swp2
 
auto bridge
iface bridge
    bridge-vlan-aware yes
    bridge-ports swp1 swp2
    bridge-vids 1-100
    bridge-pvid 1
    bridge-stp on

Without Child Interfaces Defined

auto bridge
iface bridge
    bridge-vlan-aware yes
    bridge-ports swp1 swp2
    bridge-vids 1-100
    bridge-pvid 1
    bridge-stp on
 Bridge in Traditional Mode - Example

For this example, swp1.100 and swp2.100 below do not need an entry in the interfaces file. The following stanzas defined in /etc/network/interfaces provide the exact same configuration:

With Child Interfaces Defined

auto swp1.100
iface swp1.100
 
auto swp2.100
iface swp2.100
 
auto br-100
iface br-100
    address 10.0.12.2/24
    address 2001:dad:beef::3/64
    bridge-ports swp1.100 swp2.100
    bridge-stp on

Without Child Interfaces Defined

auto br-100
iface br-100
    address 10.0.12.2/24
    address 2001:dad:beef::3/64
    bridge-ports swp1.100 swp2.100
    bridge-stp on

For more information on the bridge in traditional mode vs the bridge in VLAN-aware mode, please read this knowledge base article.

ifupdown2 Interface Dependencies

ifupdown2 understands interface dependency relationships. When ifup and ifdown are run with all interfaces, they always run with all interfaces in dependency order. When run with the interface list on the command line, the default behavior is to not run with dependents. But if there are any built-in dependents, they will be brought up or down.

To run with dependents when you specify the interface list, use the --with-depends option. --with-depends walks through all dependents in the dependency tree rooted at the interface you specify. Consider the following example configuration:

auto bond1
iface bond1
    address 100.0.0.2/16
    bond-slaves swp29 swp30

auto bond2
iface bond2
    address 100.0.0.5/16
    bond-slaves swp31 swp32

auto br2001
iface br2001
    address 12.0.1.3/24
    bridge-ports bond1.2001 bond2.2001
    bridge-stp on

Using ifup --with-depends br2001 brings up all dependents of br2001: bond1.2001, bond2.2001, bond1, bond2, bond1.2001, bond2.2001, swp29, swp30, swp31, swp32.

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup --with-depends br2001

Similarly, specifying ifdown --with-depends br2001 brings down all dependents of br2001: bond1.2001, bond2.2001, bond1, bond2, bond1.2001, bond2.2001, swp29, swp30, swp31, swp32.

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown --with-depends br2001
As mentioned earlier, ifdown2 always deletes logical interfaces after bringing them down. Use the --admin-state option if you only want to administratively bring the interface up or down. In terms of the above example, ifdown br2001 deletes br2001.

To guide you through which interfaces will be brought down and up, use the --print-dependency option to get the list of dependents.

Use ifquery --print-dependency=list -a to get the dependency list of all interfaces:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --print-dependency=list -a
lo : None
eth0 : None
bond0 : ['swp25', 'swp26']
bond1 : ['swp29', 'swp30']
bond2 : ['swp31', 'swp32']
br0 : ['bond1', 'bond2']
bond1.2000 : ['bond1']
bond2.2000 : ['bond2']
br2000 : ['bond1.2000', 'bond2.2000']
bond1.2001 : ['bond1']
bond2.2001 : ['bond2']
br2001 : ['bond1.2001', 'bond2.2001']
swp40 : None
swp25 : None
swp26 : None
swp29 : None
swp30 : None
swp31 : None
swp32 : None

To print the dependency list of a single interface, use:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --print-dependency=list br2001
br2001 : ['bond1.2001', 'bond2.2001']
bond1.2001 : ['bond1']
bond2.2001 : ['bond2']
bond1 : ['swp29', 'swp30']
bond2 : ['swp31', 'swp32']
swp29 : None
swp30 : None
swp31 : None
swp32 : None

To print the dependency information of an interface in dot format:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --print-dependency=dot br2001
/* Generated by GvGen v.0.9 (http://software.inl.fr/trac/wiki/GvGen) */
digraph G {
    compound=true;
    node1 [label="br2001"];
    node2 [label="bond1.2001"];
    node3 [label="bond2.2001"];
    node4 [label="bond1"];
    node5 [label="bond2"];
    node6 [label="swp29"];
    node7 [label="swp30"];
    node8 [label="swp31"];
    node9 [label="swp32"];
    node1->node2;
    node1->node3;
    node2->node4;
    node3->node5;
    node4->node6;
    node4->node7;
    node5->node8;
    node5->node9;
}

You can use dot to render the graph on an external system where dot is installed.

To print the dependency information of the entire interfaces file:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --print-dependency=dot -a >interfaces_all.dot

ifup and Upper (Parent) Interfaces

When you run ifup on a logical interface (like a bridge, bond or VLAN interface), if the ifup resulted in the creation of the logical interface, by default it implicitly tries to execute on the interface's upper (or parent) interfaces as well. This helps in most cases, especially when a bond is brought down and up, as in the example below. This section describes the behavior of bringing up the upper interfaces.

Consider this example configuration:

auto br100
iface br100
    bridge-ports bond1.100 bond2.100

auto bond1
iface bond1
    bond-slaves swp1 swp2

If you run ifdown bond1ifdown deletes bond1 and the VLAN interface on bond1 (bond1.100); it also removes bond1 from the bridge br100. Next, when you run ifup bond1, it creates bond1 and the VLAN interface on bond1 (bond1.100); it also executes ifup br100 to add the bond VLAN interface (bond1.100) to the bridge br100.

As you can see above, implicitly bringing up the upper interface helps, but there can be cases where an upper interface (like br100) is not in the right state, which can result in warnings. The warnings are mostly harmless.

If you want to disable these warnings, you can disable the implicit upper interface handling by setting skip_upperifaces=1 in /etc/network/ifupdown2/ifupdown2.conf.

With skip_upperifaces=1, you will have to explicitly execute ifup on the upper interfaces. In this case, you will have to run ifup br100 after an ifup bond1 to add bond1 back to bridge br100.

Although specifying a subinterface like swp1.100 and then running ifup swp1.100 will also result in the automatic creation of the swp1 interface in the kernel, Cumulus Networks recommends you specify the parent interface swp1 as well. A parent interface is one where any physical layer configuration can reside, such as link-speed 1000 or link-duplex full.

It's important to note that if you only create swp1.100 and not swp1, then you cannot run ifup swp1 since you did not specify it.

Configure IP Addresses

IP addresses are configured with the net add interface command.

Example IP Address Configuration

The following commands configure three IP addresses for swp1: two IPv4 addresses, and one IPv6 address.

cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 ip address 12.0.0.1/30
cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 ip address 12.0.0.2/30
cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 ipv6 address 2001:DB8::1/126
cumulus@switch:~$ net pending
cumulus@switch:~$ net commit

These commands create the following code snippet:

auto swp1
iface swp1
    address 12.0.0.1/30
    address 12.0.0.2/30
    address 2001:DB8::1/126

You can specify both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for the same interface.

For IPv6 addresses, you can create or modify the IP address for an interface using either "::" or "0:0:0" notation. Both of the following examples are valid:

cumulus@switch:~$ net add bgp neighbor 2620:149:43:c109:0:0:0:5 remote-as internal
cumulus@switch:~$ 
cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 ipv6 address 2001:DB8::1/126

The address method and address family are added by NCLU when needed, specifically when you are creating DHCP or loopback interfaces.

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

To show the assigned address on an interface, use ip addr show:

cumulus@switch:~$ ip addr show dev swp1
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 500
    link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.0.2.1/30 scope global swp1
	inet 192.0.2.2/30 scope global swp1
    inet6 2001:DB8::1/126 scope global tentative
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Specify IP Address Scope 

ifupdown2 does not honor the configured IP address scope setting in /etc/network/interfaces, treating all addresses as global. It does not report an error. Consider this example configuration:

auto swp2
iface swp2
    address 35.21.30.5/30
    address 3101:21:20::31/80
    scope link

When you run ifreload -a on this configuration, ifupdown2 considers all IP addresses as global.

cumulus@switch:~$ ip addr show swp2
5: swp2: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
link/ether 74:e6:e2:f5:62:82 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 35.21.30.5/30 scope global swp2
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
inet6 3101:21:20::31/80 scope global 
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
inet6 fe80::76e6:e2ff:fef5:6282/64 scope link 
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

To work around this issue, configure the IP address scope:

Example post-up Configuration

cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp6 post-up ip address add 71.21.21.20/32 dev swp6 scope site
cumulus@switch:~$ net pending
cumulus@switch:~$ net commit

These commands create the following code snippet in the /etc/network/interfaces file:

auto swp6
iface swp6
    post-up ip address add 71.21.21.20/32 dev swp6 scope site

Now it has the correct scope:

cumulus@switch:~$ ip addr show swp6
9: swp6: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
link/ether 74:e6:e2:f5:62:86 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 71.21.21.20/32 scope site swp6
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
inet6 fe80::76e6:e2ff:fef5:6286/64 scope link 
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Purge Existing IP Addresses on an Interface

By default, ifupdown2 purges existing IP addresses on an interface. If you have other processes that manage IP addresses for an interface, you can disable this feature including the address-purge setting in the interface's configuration.

cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 address-purge no
cumulus@switch:~$ net pending
cumulus@switch:~$ net commit

These commands create the following configuration snippet in the /etc/network/interfaces file:

auto swp1
iface swp1
    address-purge no

Purging existing addresses on interfaces with multiple iface stanzas is not supported. Doing so can result in the configuration of multiple addresses for an interface after you change an interface address and reload the configuration with ifreload -a. If this happens, you must shut down and restart the interface with ifup and ifdown, or manually delete superfluous addresses with ip address delete specify.ip.address.here/mask dev DEVICE. See also the Caveats and Errata section below for some cautions about using multiple iface stanzas for the same interface.

Specify User Commands

You can specify additional user commands in the interfaces file. As shown in the example below, the interface stanzas in /etc/network/interfaces can have a command that runs at pre-up, up, post-up, pre-down, down, and post-down:

cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 post-up /sbin/foo bar
cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface ip address 12.0.0.1/30
cumulus@switch:~$ net pending
cumulus@switch:~$ net commit

These commands create the following configuration in the /etc/network/interfaces file:

auto swp1
iface swp1
    address 12.0.0.1/30
    post-up /sbin/foo bar

Any valid command can be hooked in the sequencing of bringing an interface up or down, although commands should be limited in scope to network-related commands associated with the particular interface.

For example, it wouldn't make sense to install some Debian package on ifup of swp1, even though that is technically possible. See man interfaces for more details.

If your post-up command also starts, restarts or reloads any systemd service, you must use the --no-block option with systemctl. Otherwise, that service or even the switch itself may hang after starting or restarting.

For example, to restart the dhcrelay service after bringing up VLAN 100, first run:

cumulus@switch:~$ net add vlan 100 post-up systemctl --no-block restart dhcrelay.service

This command creates the following configuration in the /etc/network/interfaces file:

auto bridge
iface bridge
    bridge-vids 100
    bridge-vlan-aware yes
 
auto vlan100
iface vlan100
    post-up systemctl --no-block restart dhcrelay.service
    vlan-id 100
    vlan-raw-device bridge

Source Interface File Snippets

Sourcing interface files helps organize and manage the interfaces file. For example:

cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

source /etc/network/interfaces.d/bond0

The contents of the sourced file used above are:

cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces.d/bond0
auto bond0
iface bond0
    address 14.0.0.9/30
    address 2001:ded:beef:2::1/64
    bond-slaves swp25 swp26

Use Globs for Port Lists

NCLU supports globs to define port lists (that is, a range of ports). The glob keyword is implied when you specify bridge ports and bond slaves:

cumulus@switch:~$ net add bridge bridge ports swp1-4,6,10-12
cumulus@switch:~$ net pending
cumulus@switch:~$ net commit

While you must use commas to separate different ranges of ports in the NCLU command, the /etc/network/interfaces file renders the list of ports individually, as in the example output below.

These commands produce the following snippet in the /etc/network/interfaces file:

...

auto bridge
iface bridge
    bridge-ports swp1 swp2 swp3 swp4 swp6 swp10 swp11 swp12
    bridge-vlan-aware yes
auto swp1
iface swp1

auto swp2
iface swp2
 
auto swp3
iface swp3
 
auto swp4
iface swp4
 
auto swp6
iface swp6

auto swp10
iface swp10

auto swp11
iface swp11

auto swp12
iface swp12

Use Templates

ifupdown2 supports Mako-style templates. The Mako template engine is run over the interfaces file before parsing.

Use the template to declare cookie-cutter bridges in the interfaces file:

%for v in [11,12]:
auto vlan${v}
iface vlan${v}
    address 10.20.${v}.3/24
    bridge-ports glob swp19-20.${v}
    bridge-stp on
%endfor

And use it to declare addresses in the interfaces file:

%for i in [1,12]:
auto swp${i}
iface swp${i}
    address 10.20.${i}.3/24

Regarding Mako syntax, use square brackets ([1,12]) to specify a list of individual numbers (in this case, 1 and 12). Use range(1,12) to specify a range of interfaces.

You can test your template and confirm it evaluates correctly by running mako-render /etc/network/interfaces.

For more examples of configuring Mako templates, read this knowledge base article.

To comment out content in Mako templates, use double hash marks (##). For example:

## % for i in range(1, 4):
## auto swp${i}
## iface swp${i}
## % endfor
##

Run ifupdown Scripts under /etc/network/ with ifupdown2

Unlike the traditional ifupdown system, ifupdown2 does not run scripts installed in /etc/network/*/ automatically to configure network interfaces.

To enable or disable ifupdown2 scripting, edit the addon_scripts_support line in the /etc/network/ifupdown2/ifupdown2.conf file. 1 enables scripting and 2 disables scripting. The following example enables scripting.

 

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo nano /etc/network/ifupdown2/ifupdown2.conf
# Support executing of ifupdown style scripts.
# Note that by default python addon modules override scripts with the same name
addon_scripts_support=1

 ifupdown2 sets the following environment variables when executing commands:

  • $IFACE represents the physical name of the interface being processed; for example, br0 or vxlan42The name is obtained from the /etc/network/interfaces file.
  • $LOGICAL represents the logical name (configuration name) of the interface being processed.
  • $METHOD represents the address method; for example, loopback, DHCP, DHCP6, manual, static, and so on. 
  • $ADDRFAM represents the address families associated with the interface, formatted in a comma-separated list; for example, "inet,inet6". 

Add Descriptions to Interfaces

You can add descriptions to the interfaces configured in /etc/network/interfaces by using the alias keyword.

Example Alias Configuration

The following commands create an alias for swp1:

cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 alias hypervisor_port_1
cumulus@switch:~$ net pending
cumulus@switch:~$ net commit

These commands create the following code snippet:

auto swp1
iface swp1
    alias hypervisor_port_1

You can query the interface description using NCLU:

cumulus@switch$ net show interface swp1
    Name   MAC                Speed     MTU   Mode
--  ----   -----------------  -------   -----  ---------
UP  swp1   44:38:39:00:00:04  1G        1500   Access/L2
Alias
-----
hypervisor_port_1

Interface descriptions also appear in the SNMP OID IF-MIB::ifAlias.

Aliases are limited to 256 characters.

To show the interface description (alias) for all interfaces on the switch, run the net show interface alias command. For example:

cumulus@switch:~$ net show interface alias
State    Name            Mode              Alias
-----    -------------   -------------     ------------------
UP       bond01          LACP
UP       bond02          LACP
UP       bridge          Bridge/L2
UP       eth0            Mgmt
UP       lo              Loopback          loopback interface
UP       mgmt            Interface/L3
UP       peerlink        LACP
UP       peerlink.4094   SubInt/L3
UP       swp1            BondMember        hypervisor_port_1
UP       swp2            BondMember        to Server02
...

To show the interface description for all interfaces on the switch in JSON format, run the net show interface alias json command.

Caveats and Errata

While ifupdown2 supports the inclusion of multiple iface stanzas for the same interface, Cumulus Networks recommends you use a single iface stanza for each interface, if possible.

There are cases where you must specify more than one iface stanza for the same interface. For example, the configuration for a single interface can come from many places, like a template or a sourced file.

If you do specify multiple iface stanzas for the same interface, make sure the stanzas do not specify the same interface attributes. Otherwise, unexpected behavior can result.

For example, swp1 is configured in two places:

cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces

source /etc/network/interfaces.d/speed_settings

auto swp1
iface swp1
  address 10.0.14.2/24

As well as /etc/network/interfaces.d/speed_settings

cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces.d/speed_settings

auto swp1
iface swp1
  link-speed 1000
  link-duplex full

ifupdown2 correctly parses a configuration like this because the same attributes are not specified in multiple iface stanzas.

And, as stated in the note above, you cannot purge existing addresses on interfaces with multiple iface stanzas.

ifupdown2 and sysctl

For sysctl commands in the pre-upup, post-up, pre-downdown, and post-down lines that use the $IFACE variable, if the interface name contains a dot (.), ifupdown2 does not change the name to work with sysctl. For example, the interface name bridge.1 is not converted to bridge/1.

Long Interface Names

The Linux kernel limits interface names to 15 characters in length and cannot have a number as the first character. Longer interface names can result in errors. To work around this issue, remove the interface from the /etc/network/interfaces file, then restart the networking.service.

 

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl restart networking.service

Related Information