This chapter helps you get up and running with Cumulus Linux quickly and easily.

Contents

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What's New in Cumulus Linux 2.5.12

Cumulus Linux 2.5.12 is part of Cumulus Linux 2.5 ESR and as such, contains bug fixes only. The release notes contain information about the release as well as the fixed and known issues.

Open Source Contributions

Cumulus Networks has forked various software projects, like CFEngine, Netdev and some Puppet Labs packages in order to implement various Cumulus Linux features. The forked code resides in the Cumulus Networks GitHub repository.

Cumulus Networks developed and released as open source some new applications as well.

The list of open source projects is on the open source software page.

Prerequisites

Prior intermediate Linux knowledge is assumed for this guide. You should be familiar with basic text editing, Unix file permissions, and process monitoring. A variety of text editors are pre-installed, including vi and nano.

You must have access to a Linux or UNIX shell. If you are running Windows, you should use a Linux environment like Cygwin as your command line tool for interacting with Cumulus Linux.

If you're a networking engineer but are unfamiliar with Linux concepts, use this reference guide to see examples of the Cumulus Linux CLI and configuration options, and their equivalent Cisco Nexus 3000 NX-OS commands and settings for comparison. You can also watch a series of short videos introducing you to Linux in general and some Cumulus Linux-specific concepts in particular.

Hardware Compatibility List

You can find the most up to date hardware compatibility list (HCL) here. Use the HCL to confirm that your switch model is supported by Cumulus Networks. The HCL is updated regularly, listing products by port configuration, manufacturer, and SKU part number.

Installing Cumulus Linux

This quick start guide walks you through the steps necessary for getting Cumulus Linux up and running on your switch, which includes:

  1. Powering on the switch and entering ONIE, the Open Network Install Environment.
  2. Installing Cumulus Linux on the switch via ONIE.
  3. Booting into Cumulus Linux and installing the license.
  4. Rebooting the switch to activate the switch ports.
  5. Configuring switch ports and a loopback interface.

To install Cumulus Linux, you use ONIE (Open  Network Install Environment), an extension to the traditional U-Boot software that allows for automatic discovery of a network installer image. This facilitates the ecosystem model of procuring switches, with a user's own choice of operating system loaded, such as Cumulus Linux.

 

If Cumulus Linux is already installed on your switch, and you need to upgrade the software only, you can skip to Upgrading Cumulus Linux below.

 

The easiest way to install Cumulus Linux with ONIE is via local HTTP discovery:

  1. If your host (like a laptop or server) is IPv6-enabled, make sure it is running a Web server.

    If the host is IPv4-enabled, make sure it is running DHCP as well as a Web server.

  2. Download the Cumulus Linux installation file to the root directory of the Web server. Rename this file onie-installer.
  3. Connect your host via Ethernet cable to the management Ethernet port of the switch.
  4. Power on the switch. The switch downloads the ONIE image installer and boots it. You can watch the progress of the install in your terminal. After the installation finishes, the Cumulus Linux login prompt appears in the terminal window.

 

These steps describe a flexible unattended installation method. You should not need a console cable. A fresh install via ONIE using a local Web server should generally complete in less than 10 minutes.

You have more options for installing Cumulus Linux with ONIE. Read Installing a New Cumulus Linux Image to install Cumulus Linux using ONIE in the following ways:

  • DHCP/Web server with and without DHCP options
  • Web server without DHCP
  • FTP or TFTP without a Web server
  • Local file
  • USB

 

ONIE supports many other discovery mechanisms using USB (copy the installer to the root of the drive), DHCPv6 and DHCPv4, and image copy methods including HTTP, FTP, and TFTP. For more information on these discovery methods, refer to the ONIE documentation.

After installing Cumulus Linux, you are ready to:

  • Log in to Cumulus Linux on the switch.
  • Install the Cumulus Linux license.
  • Configure Cumulus Linux. This quick start guide provides instructions on configuring switch ports and a loopback interface.

Upgrading Cumulus Linux

If you already have Cumulus Linux installed on your switch and are upgrading to a maintenance release (X.Y.Z, like 2.5.1) from an earlier release in the same major and minor release family only (like 2.2.1 to 2.2.2, or 2.5.0 to 2.5.1), you can use various methods, including  apt-get, to upgrade to the new version instead. See Upgrading Cumulus Linux for details.

Configuring Cumulus Linux

When bringing up Cumulus Linux for the first time, the management port makes a DHCPv4 request. To determine the IP address of the switch, you can cross reference the MAC address of the switch with your DHCP server. The MAC address should be located on the side of the switch or on the box in which the unit was shipped.

Login Credentials

The default installation includes one system account, root, with full system privileges, and one user account, cumulus, with sudo privileges. The root account password is set to null by default (which prohibits login), while the cumulus account is configured with this default password:

CumulusLinux!

In this quick start guide, you will use the cumulus account to configure Cumulus Linux.

For best security, you should change the default password (using the passwd command) before you configure Cumulus Linux on the switch.

All accounts except root are permitted remote SSH login; sudo may be used to grant a non-root account root-level access. Commands which change the system configuration require this elevated level of access.

For more information about sudo, read Using sudo to Delegate Privileges .

Serial Console Management

Users are encouraged to perform management and configuration over the network, either in band or out of band. Use of the serial console is fully supported; however, many customers prefer the convenience of network-based management.

Typically, switches will ship from the manufacturer with a mating DB9 serial cable. Switches with ONIE are always set to a 115200 baud rate.

Wired Ethernet Management

Switches supported in Cumulus Linux always contain at least one dedicated Ethernet management port, which is named eth0. This interface is geared specifically for out-of-band management use. The management interface uses DHCPv4 for addressing by default. You can set a static IP address in the /etc/network/interfaces file:

auto eth0
iface eth0
    address 192.0.2.42/24
    gateway 192.0.2.1

Configuring the Hostname and Time Zone

To change the hostname, modify the  /etc/hostname  and /etc/hosts files with the desired hostname and reboot the switch. First, edit /etc/hostname:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vi /etc/hostname

Then replace the 127.0.1.1 IP address in /etc/hosts with the new hostname:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vi /etc/hosts

Reboot the switch:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo reboot

To update the time zone, update the /etc/timezone file with the correct timezone, run dpkg-reconfigure --frontend noninteractive tzdata, then reboot the switch:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vi /etc/timezone
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure --frontend noninteractive tzdata
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo reboot

It is possible to change the hostname without a reboot via a script available on Cumulus Networks GitHub site.

Installing the License

Cumulus Linux is licensed on a per-instance basis. Each network system is fully operational, enabling any capability to be utilized on the switch with the exception of forwarding on switch panel ports. Only eth0 and console ports are activated on an unlicensed instance of Cumulus Linux. Enabling front panel ports requires a license.

You should have received a license key from Cumulus Networks or an authorized reseller. Here is a sample license key:

user@company.com|thequickbrownfoxjumpsoverthelazydog312

There are three ways to install the license onto the switch:

  • Copy it from a local server. Create a text file with the license and copy it to a server accessible from the switch. On the switch, use the following command to transfer the file directly on the switch, then install the license file:
    cumulus@switch:~$ scp user@my_server:/home/user/my_license_file.txt .
    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-license -i my_license_file.txt
  • Copy the file to an HTTP server (not HTTPS), then reference the URL when you run cl-license:
    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-license -i <URL>
  • Copy and paste the license key into the cl-license command:
    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-license -i
    <paste license key>
    ^+d

Once the license is installed successfully, reboot the system:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo reboot

After the switch reboots, all front panel ports will be active. The front panel ports are identified as switch ports, and show up as swp1, swp2, and so forth.

Configuring 4x10G Port Configuration (Splitter Cables)

If you are using 4x10G DAC or AOC cables, edit the /etc/cumulus/ports.conf to enable support for these cables then restart the switchd service using the sudo service switchd restart command. For more details, see Layer 1 and Switch Port Attributes .

Testing Cable Connectivity

By default, all data plane ports (every Ethernet port except the management interface, eth0) are disabled.

To test cable connectivity, administratively enable a port using ip link set <interface> up:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set swp1 up

Run the following bash script, as root, to administratively enable all physical ports:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo su -
cumulus@switch:~$ for i in /sys/class/net/*; do iface=`basename $i`; if [[ $iface == swp* ]]; then ip link set $iface up; fi done

To view link status, use ip link show. The following examples show the output of a port in "admin down", "down" and "up" mode, respectively:

# Administratively Down
swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000

# Administratively Up but Layer 2 protocol is Down
swp1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 500

# Administratively Up, Layer 2 protocol is Up
swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500

Configuring Switch Ports

Layer 2 Port Configuration

Cumulus Linux does not put all ports into a bridge by default. To configure a front panel port or create a bridge, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file. After saving the file, to activate the change, use the ifup command.

Examples

In the following configuration example, the front panel port swp1 is placed into a bridge called br0:

auto br0
iface br0
  bridge-ports swp1
  bridge-stp on

To put a range of ports into a bridge, use the glob keyword. For example, add swp1 through swp10, swp12, and swp14 through swp20 to br0:

auto br0
iface br0
  bridge-ports glob swp1-10 swp12 glob swp14-20
  bridge-stp on

To activate or apply the configuration to the kernel:

# First, check for typos:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery -a

# Then activate the change if no errors are found:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup -a

To view the changes in the kernel, use the brctl command:

cumulus@switch:~$ brctl show
bridge name     bridge id              STP enabled     interfaces
br0             8000.089e01cedcc2       yes              swp1
A script is available to generate a configuration that places all physical ports in a single bridge.

Layer 3 Port Configuration

To configure a front panel port or bridge interface as a Layer 3 port, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file.

In the following configuration example, the front panel port swp1 is configured a Layer 3 access port:

auto swp1
iface swp1
  address 10.1.1.1/30

To add an IP address to a bridge interface, include the address under the iface configuration in /etc/network/interfaces:

auto br0
iface br0
  address 10.2.2.1/24
  bridge-ports glob swp1-10 swp12 glob swp14-20
  bridge-stp on

To activate or apply the configuration to the kernel:

# First check for typos:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery -a

# Then activate the change if no errors are found:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup -a

To view the changes in the kernel use the ip addr show command:

br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP
link/ether 00:02:00:00:00:28 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 10.2.2.1/24 scope global br0

swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP
link/ether 44:38:39:00:6e:fe brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 10.1.1.1/30 scope global swp1

Configuring a Loopback Interface

Cumulus Linux has a loopback preconfigured in /etc/network/interfaces. When the switch boots up, it has a loopback interface, called lo , which is up and assigned an IP address of 127.0.0.1.

To see the status of the loopback interface (lo), use the ip addr show lo command:

cumulus@switch:~$ ip addr show lo
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Note that the loopback is up and is assigned an IP address of 127.0.0.1.

To add an IP address to a loopback interface, add it directly under the iface lo inet loopback definition in /etc/network/interfaces:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
    address 10.1.1.1

If an IP address is configured without a mask, as shown above, the IP address becomes a /32. So, in the above case, 10.1.1.1 is actually 10.1.1.1/32.

Multiple loopback addresses can be configured by adding additional address lines:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
    address 10.1.1.1
    address 172.16.2.1/24