BGP is the routing protocol that runs the Internet. It is an increasingly popular protocol for use in the data center as it lends itself well to the rich interconnections in a Clos topology. Specifically:
- It does not require routing state to be periodically refreshed unlike OSPF.
- It is less chatty than its link-state siblings. For example, a link or node transition can result in a bestpath change, causing BGP to send updates.
- It is multi-protocol and extensible.
- There are many robust vendor implementations.
- The protocol is very mature and comes with many years of operational experience.
This IETF draft provides further details of the use of BGP within the data center.
Autonomous System Number (ASN)
One of the key concepts in BGP is an autonomous system number or ASN. An autonomous system is defined as a set of routers under a common administration. Since BGP was originally designed to peer between independently managed enterprises and/or service providers, each such enterprise is treated as an autonomous system, responsible for a set of network addresses. Each such autonomous system is given a unique number called its ASN. ASNs are handed out by a central authority (ICANN). However, ASNs between 64512 and 65535 are reserved for private use. Using BGP within the data center relies on either using this number space or else using the single ASN you own.
The ASN is central to how BGP builds a forwarding topology. A BGP route advertisement carries with it not only the originator’s ASN, but also the list of ASNs that this route advertisement has passed through. When forwarding a route advertisement, a BGP speaker adds itself to this list. This list of ASNs is called the AS path. BGP uses the AS path to detect and avoid loops.
ASNs were originally 16-bit numbers, but were later modified to be 32-bit. Quagga supports both 16-bit and 32-bit ASNs, but most implementations still run with 16-bit ASNs.
eBGP and iBGP
When BGP is used to peer between autonomous systems, the peering is referred to as external BGP or eBGP. When BGP is used within an autonomous system, the peering used is referred to as internal BGP or iBGP. eBGP peers have different ASNs while iBGP peers have the same ASN.
While the heart of the protocol is the same when used as eBGP or iBGP, there is a key difference in the protocol behavior between use as eBGP and iBGP: an iBGP node does not forward routing information learned from one iBGP peer to another iBGP peer. It expects the originating iBGP peer to send this information to all iBGP peers.
This implies that iBGP peers are all connected to each other. In a large network, this requirement can quickly become unscalable. The most popular method to avoid this problem is to introduce a route reflector.
Route reflectors are quite easy to understand in a Clos topology. In a two-tier Clos network, the leaf (or tier 1) switches are the only ones connected to end stations. Subsequently, this means that the spines themselves do not have any routes to announce. They’re merely reflecting the routes announced by one leaf to the other leaves. Thus, the spine switches function as route reflectors while the leaf switches serve as route reflector clients.
In a three-tier network, the tier 2 nodes (or mid-tier spines) act as both route reflector servers and route reflector clients. They act as route reflectors because they announce the routes learned from the tier 1 nodes to other tier 1 nodes and to tier 3 nodes. They also act as route reflector clients to the tier 3 nodes, receiving routes learned from other tier 2 nodes. Tier 3 nodes act only as route reflectors.
In the following illustration, tier 2 node 2.1 is acting as a route reflector server, announcing the routes between tier 1 nodes 1.1 and 1.2 to tier 1 node 1.3. It is also a route reflector client, learning the routes between tier 2 nodes 2.2 and 2.3 from the tier 3 node, 3.1.
ECMP with BGP
If a BGP node hears a prefix p from multiple peers, it has all the information necessary to program the routing table to forward traffic for that prefix p through all of these peers. Thus, BGP supports equal-cost multipathing.
In order to perform ECMP in BGP, you may need to configure two parameters: maximum paths and, if you're using eBGP, multipath relax.
BGP does not install multiple routes by default. To do so, use the
maximum-paths command. Or, if you're using iBGP, use the
maximum-paths ibgp command as shown below.
If your data center uses eBGP, you need to configure an additional parameter for proper ECMP: the
bestpath as-path multipath-relax no-as-set command. You configure it under the BGP routing process.
For more information on the
no-as-set option, read the AS_PATH section below.
BGP for both IPv4 and IPv6
Unlike OSPF, which has separate versions of the protocol to announce IPv4 and IPv6 routes, BGP is a multi-protocol routing engine, capable of announcing both IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes. It supports announcing IPv4 prefixes over an IPv4 session and IPv6 prefixes over an IPv6 session. It also supports announcing prefixes of both these address families over a single IPv4 session or over a single IPv6 session.
Activate the BGP and Zebra daemons:
- Add the following line to
zebra=yes bgpd = yes
Touch an empty
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo touch /etc/quagga/bgpd.conf
A slightly more useful configuration file would contain the following lines:
hostname R7 password ***** enable password ***** log timestamp precision 6 log file /var/log/quagga/bgpd.log ! line vty exec-timeout 0 0 !
The most important information here is the specification of the location of the log file, where the BGP process can log debugging and other useful information. A common convention is to store the log files under
You must restart
quaggawhen a new daemon is enabled:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service quagga restart
- Add the following line to
Identify the BGP node by assigning an ASN and
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21). Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al. R7# configure terminal R7(config)# router bgp 65000 R7(config-router)# bgp router-id 0.0.0.1
Specify to whom it must disseminate routing information:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 remote-as 65001
If it is an iBGP session, the
remote-asis the same as the local AS:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 remote-as 65000
Specifying the peer’s IP address allows BGP to set up a TCP socket with this peer, but it doesn’t distribute any prefixes to it, unless it is explicitly told that it must via the
R7(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast R7(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 activate R7(config-router-af)# exit R7(config-router)# address-family ipv6 R7(config-router-af)# neighbor 2002:0a00:0002::0a00:0002 activate R7(config-router-af)# exit
As you can see, activate has to be specified for each address family that is being announced by the BGP session.
Specify some properties of the BGP session:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 next-hop-self R7(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast R7(config-router-af)# maximum-paths 64
For iBGP, the
maximum-pathsis selected by typing:
R7(config-router-af)# maximum-paths ibgp 64
If this is a route-reflector client, it can be specified as follows:
R3(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.0.0.1 route-reflector-clientIt is node R3, the route reflector, on which the peer is specified as a client.
Specify what prefixes to originate:
R7(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast R7(config-router-af)# network 192.0.2.0/24 R7(config-router-af)# network 203.0.113.1/24
Using BGP Unnumbered Interfaces
Unnumbered interfaces are interfaces without unique IP addresses. In BGP, you configure unnumbered interfaces using extended next-hop encoding (ENHE), which is defined by RFC 5549. BGP unnumbered interfaces provide a means of advertising an IPv4 route with an IPv6 next-hop. Prior to RFC 5549, an IPv4 route could be advertised only with an IPv4 next-hop.
BGP unnumbered interfaces are particularly useful in deployments where IPv4 prefixes are advertised through BGP over a section without any IPv4 address configuration on links. As a result, the routing entries are also IPv4 for destination lookup and have IPv6 next-hops for forwarding purposes.
BGP and Extended Next-hop Encoding
Once enabled and active, BGP makes use of the available IPv6 next-hops for advertising any IPv4 prefixes. BGP learns the prefixes, calculates the routes and installs them in IPv4 AFI to IPv6 AFI format. However, ENHE in Cumulus Linux does not install routes into the kernel in IPv4 prefix to IPv6 next-hop format. For link-local peerings enabled by dynamically learning the other end's link-local address using IPv6 neighbor discovery router advertisements, an IPv6 next-hop is converted into an IPv4 link-local address and a static neighbor entry is installed for this IPv4 link-local address with the MAC address derived from the link-local address of the other end.
Configuring BGP Unnumbered Interfaces
Configuring a BGP unnumbered interface requires enabling IPv6 neighbor discovery router advertisements. The
interval you specify is measured in seconds, and defaults to 600 seconds. Extended next-hop encoding is sent only for the link-local address peerings:
interface swp1 no ipv6 nd suppress-ra ipv6 nd ra-interval 5 ! router bgp 10 neighbor swp1 interface neighbor swp1 remote-as 20 neighbor swp1 capability extended-nexthop !
Managing Unnumbered Interfaces
All the relevant BGP commands are now capable of showing IPv6 next-hops and/or the interface name for any IPv4 prefix:
# show ip bgp BGP table version is 66, local router ID is 188.8.131.52 Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, = multipath, i internal, r RIB-failure, S Stale, R Removed Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> 184.108.40.206/32 0.0.0.0 0 32768 ? *= 220.127.116.11/32 swp2 0 65534 64503 ? *= swp6 0 65002 64503 ? *= swp5 0 65001 64503 ? *= swp1 0 65534 64503 ? *= swp4 0 65534 64503 ? *> swp3 0 65534 64503 ? # show ip bgp 18.104.22.168/32 BGP routing table entry for 22.214.171.124/32 Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table) Advertised to non peer-group peers: swp1 swp2 swp3 swp4 swp5 swp6 65534 fe80::202:ff:fe00:3d from swp2 (126.96.36.199) (fe80::202:ff:fe00:3d) (used) Origin incomplete, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, external, best Last update: Tue May 12 17:18:41 2015
Quagga RIB commands are also modified:
# show ip route Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, A - Babel, T - Table, > - selected route, * - FIB route K>* 0.0.0.0/0 via 192.168.0.2, eth0 C>* 188.8.131.52/32 is directly connected, lo B>* 184.108.40.206/32 [20/0] via fe80::202:ff:fe00:45, swp3, 00:46:12 * via fe80::202:ff:fe00:35, swp1, 00:46:12 * via fe80::202:ff:fe00:3d, swp2, 00:46:12 * via fe80::202:ff:fe00:4d, swp4, 00:46:12 * via fe80::202:ff:fe00:55, swp5, 00:46:12 * via fe80::202:ff:fe00:5a, swp6, 00:46:12
The following commands show how the IPv4 link-local address 169.254.0.1 is used to install the route and static neighbor entry to facilitate proper forwarding without having to install an IPv4 prefix with IPv6 next-hop in the kernel:
# ip route show 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 proto zebra metric 20 nexthop via 169.254.0.1 dev swp3 weight 1 onlink nexthop via 169.254.0.1 dev swp1 weight 1 onlink nexthop via 169.254.0.1 dev swp2 weight 1 onlink nexthop via 169.254.0.1 dev swp4 weight 1 onlink nexthop via 169.254.0.1 dev swp5 weight 1 onlink nexthop via 169.254.0.1 dev swp6 weight 1 onlink # ip neigh fe80::202:ff:fe00:35 dev swp1 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:35 router REACHABLE fe80::202:ff:fe00:5a dev swp6 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:5a router REACHABLE fe80::202:ff:fe00:3d dev swp2 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:3d router REACHABLE fe80::202:ff:fe00:55 dev swp5 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:55 router REACHABLE fe80::202:ff:fe00:45 dev swp3 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:45 router REACHABLE fe80::202:ff:fe00:4d dev swp4 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:4d router REACHABLE 169.254.0.1 dev swp5 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:55 PERMANENT 192.168.0.2 dev eth0 lladdr 52:55:c0:a8:00:02 REACHABLE 169.254.0.1 dev swp3 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:45 PERMANENT 169.254.0.1 dev swp1 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:35 PERMANENT 169.254.0.1 dev swp4 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:4d PERMANENT 169.254.0.1 dev swp6 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:5a PERMANENT 169.254.0.1 dev swp2 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:3d PERMANENT
How traceroute Interacts with BGP Unnumbered Interfaces
Every router or end host must have an IPv4 address in order to complete a
traceroute of IPv4 addresses. In this case, the IPv4 address used is that of the loopback device.
Even if ENHE is not used in the data center, link addresses are not typically advertised. This is because:
- Link addresses take up valuable FIB resources. In a large Clos environment, the number of such addresses can be quite large.
- Link addresses expose an additional attack vector for intruders to use to either break in or engage in DDOS attacks.
Therefore, assigning an IP address to the loopback device is essential.
Advanced: Understanding How Next-hop Fields Are Set
This section describes how the IPv6 next-hops are set in the MP_REACH_NLRI (multiprotocol reachable NLRI) initiated by the system, which applies whether IPv6 prefixes or IPv4 prefixes are exchanged with ENHE. There are two main aspects to determine — how many IPv6 next-hops are included in the MP_REACH_NLRI (since the RFC allows either one or two next-hops) and the values of the next-hop(s). This section also describes how a received MP_REACH_NLRI is handled as far as processing IPv6 next-hops.
- Whether peering to a global IPv6 address or link-local IPv6 address, the determination whether to send one or two next-hops is as follows:
- If reflecting the route, two next-hops are sent only if the peer has
nexthop-local unchangedconfigured and the attribute of the received route has an IPv6 link-local next-hop; otherwise, only one next-hop is sent.
- Otherwise (if it's not reflecting the route), two next-hops are sent if explicitly configured (
nexthop-local unchanged) or the peer is directly connected (that is, either peering is on link-local address or the global IPv4 or IPv6 address is directly connected) and the route is either a local/self-originated route or the peer is an eBGP peer.
- In all other cases, only one next-hop gets sent, unless an outbound route map adds another next-hop.
- If reflecting the route, two next-hops are sent only if the peer has
route-mapcan impose two next-hops in scenarios where Cumulus Linux would only send one next-hop — by specifying
set ipv6 nexthop link-local.
- For all routes to eBGP peers and self-originated routes to iBGP peers, the global next-hop (first value) is the peering address of the local system. If the peering is on the link-local address, this is the global IPv6 address on the peering interface, if present; otherwise, it is the link-local IPv6 address on the peering interface.
For other routes to iBGP peers (eBGP to iBGP or reflected), the global next-hop will be the global next-hop in the received attribute.
If this address were a link-local IPv6 address, it would get reset so that the link-local IPv6 address of the eBGP peer is not passed along to an iBGP peer, which most likely may be on a different link.
route-mapand/or the peer configuration can change the above behavior. For example,
route-mapcan set the global IPv6 next-hop or the peer configuration can set it to self — which is relevant for iBGP peers. The route map or peer configuration can also set the next-hop to unchanged, which ensures the source IPv6 global next-hop is passed around — which is relevant for eBGP peers.
- Whenever two next-hops are being sent, the link-local next-hop (the second value of the two) is the link-local IPv6 address on the peering interface unless it is due to
route-maphas set the link-local next-hop.
- Network administrators cannot set martian values for IPv6 next-hops in
route-map. Also, global and link-local next-hops are validated to ensure they match the respective address types.
- In a received update, a martian check is imposed for the IPv6 global next-hop. If the check fails, it gets treated as an implicit withdraw.
- If two next-hops are received in an update and the second next-hop is not a link-local address, it gets ignored and the update is treated as if only one next-hop was received.
- Whenever two next-hops are received in an update, the second next-hop is used to install the route into
zebra. As per the previous point, it is already assured that this is a link-local IPv6 address. Currently, this is assumed to be reachable and is not registered with NHT.
route-mapspecifies the next-hop as
peer-address, the global IPv6 next-hop as well as the link-local IPv6 next-hop (if it's being sent) is set to the peering address. If the peering is on a link-local address, the former could be the link-local address on the peering interface, unless there is a global IPv6 address present on this interface.
The above rules imply that there are scenarios where a generated update has two IPv6 next-hops, and both of them are the IPv6 link-local address of the peering interface on the local system. If you are peering with a switch or router that is not running Cumulus Linux and expects the first next-hop to be a global IPv6 address, a route map can be used on the sender to specify a global IPv6 address. This conforms with the recommendations in the Internet draft draft-kato-bgp-ipv6-link-local-00.txt, "BGP4+ Peering Using IPv6 Link-local Address".
- Interface-based peering with separate IPv4 and IPv6 sessions is not supported.
- ENHE is sent for IPv6 link-local peerings only.
- If a IPv4 /30 or /31 IP address is assigned to the interface IPv4 peering will be used over IPv6 link-local peering.
Fast Convergence Design Considerations
Without getting into the why (see the IETF draft cited in Useful Links below that talks about BGP use within the data center), we strongly recommend the following use of addresses in the design of a BGP-based data center network:
- Use of interface addresses: Set up BGP sessions only using interface-scoped addresses. This allows BGP to react quickly to link failures.
- Use of next-hop-self: Every BGP node says that it knows how to forward traffic to the prefixes it is announcing. This reduces the requirement to announce interface-specific addresses and thereby reduces the size of the forwarding table.
Specifying the Interface Name in the neighbor Command
When you are configuring BGP for the neighbors of a given interface, you can specify the interface name instead of its IP address. All the other
neighbor command options remain the same.
This is equivalent to BGP peering to the link-local IPv6 address of the neighbor on the given interface. The link-local address is learned via IPv6 neighbor discovery router advertisements.
Consider the following example configuration:
router bgp 65000 bgp router-id 0.0.0.1 neighbor swp1 interface neighbor swp1 remote-as 65000 neighbor swp1 next-hop-self ! address-family ipv6 neighbor swp1 activate exit-address-family
Make sure that IPv6 neighbor discovery router advertisements are supported and not suppressed. In Quagga, you do this by checking the running configuration. Under the interface configuration, use
no ipv6 nd suppress-ra to remove router suppression.
Cumulus Networks recommends you adjust the router advertisement's interval to a shorter value (
ipv6 nd ra-interval <interval>) to address scenarios when nodes come up and miss router advertisement processing to relay the neighbor’s link-local address to BGP. The
interval is measured in seconds and defaults to 600 seconds.
Configuring BGP Peering Relationships across Switches
A BGP peering relationship is typically initiated with the
neighbor x.x.x.x remote-as <AS number> command. In order to simplify configuration across multiple switches, you can specify the internal or external keyword to the configuration instead of the AS number.
Specifying internal signifies an iBGP peering; that is, the neighbor will only create or accept a connection with the specified neighbor if the remote peer AS number matches this BGP's AS number.
Specifying external signifies an eBGP peering; that is, the neighbor will only create a connection with the neighbor if the remote peer AS number does not match this BGP AS number.
You can make this distinction using the
neighbor command or the
In general, use the following syntax with the
neighbor (ipv4 addr|ipv6 addr|WORD) remote-as (<1-4294967295>|internal|external)
Some example configurations follow.
To connect to the same AS using the
neighbor command, modify your configuration similar to the following:
router bgp 500
neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as internal
To connect to a different AS using the
neighbor command, modify your configuration similar to the following:
router bgp 500
neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as external
To connect to the same AS using the
peer-group command, modify your configuration similar to the following:
router bgp 500 neighbor swp1 interface neighbor IBGP peer-group neighbor IBGP remote-as internal neighbor swp1 peer-group IBGP neighbor 22.214.171.124 peer-group IBGP neighbor 126.96.36.199 peer-group IBGP
To connect to a different AS using the
peer-group command, modify your configuration similar to the following:
router bgp 500 neighbor swp2 interface neighbor EBGP peer-group neighbor EBGP remote-as external neighbor 188.8.131.52 peer-group EBGP neighbor swp2 peer-group EBGP neighbor 184.108.40.206 peer-group EBGP
Using peer-group to Simplify Configuration
When there are many peers to connect to, the amount of redundant configuration becomes overwhelming. For example, repeating the
next-hop-self commands for even 60 neighbors makes for a very long configuration file. Using
peer-group addresses this problem.
Instead of specifying properties of each individual peer, Quagga allows for defining one or more peer-groups and associating all the attributes common to that peer session to a peer-group.
After doing this, the only task is to associate an IP address with a peer-group. Here is an example of defining and using peer-groups:
R7(config-router)# neighbor tier-2 peer-group R7(config-router)# neighbor tier-2 remote-as 65000 R7(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast R7(config-router-af)# neighbor tier-2 activate R7(config-router-af)# neighbor tier-2 next-hop-self R7(config-router-af)# maximum-paths ibgp 64 R7(config-router-af)# exit R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 peer-group tier-2 R7(config-router)# neighbor 192.0.2.2 peer-group tier-2
If you're using eBGP, besides specifying the neighbor's IP address, you also have to specify the neighbor's ASN, since it is different for each neighbor. In such a case, you wouldn't specify the
remote-as for the peer-group.
Preserving the AS_PATH Setting
If you plan to use multipathing with the
multipath-relax option, Quagga generates an AS_SET in place of the current AS_PATH for the bestpath. This helps to prevent loops but is unusual behavior. To preserve the AS_PATH setting, use the
no-as-set option when configuring bestpath:
R7(config-router)# bgp bestpath as-path multipath-relax no-as-set
Utilizing Multiple Routing Tables and Forwarding
You can run multiple routing tables (one for in-band/data plane traffic and one for out-of-band/management plane traffic) on the same switch using management VRF (multiple routing tables and forwarding).
The most common starting point for troubleshooting BGP is to view the summary of neighbors connected to and some information about these connections. A sample output of this command is as follows:
R7# show ip bgp summary BGP router identifier 0.0.0.9, local AS number 65000 RIB entries 7, using 672 bytes of memory Peers 2, using 9120 bytes of memory Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd 10.0.0.2 4 65000 11 10 0 0 0 00:06:38 3 192.0.2.2 4 65000 11 10 0 0 0 00:06:38 3 Total number of neighbors 2
(Pop quiz: Are these iBGP or eBGP sessions? Hint: Look at the ASNs.)
It is also useful to view the routing table as defined by BGP:
R7# show ip bgp BGP table version is 0, local router ID is 0.0.0.9 Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, r RIB-failure, S Stale, R Removed Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> 192.0.2.29/24 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i *>i192.0.2.30/24 10.0.0.2 0 100 0 i * i 192.0.2.2 0 100 0 i *>i192.0.2.31/24 10.0.0.2 0 100 0 i * i 192.0.2.2 0 100 0 i *>i192.0.2.32/24 10.0.0.2 0 100 0 i * i 192.0.2.2 0 100 0 i Total number of prefixes 4
A more detailed breakdown of a specific neighbor can be obtained using
show ip bgp neighbor <neighbor ip address>:
R7# show ip bgp neighbor 10.0.0.2 BGP neighbor is 10.0.0.2, remote AS 65000, local AS 65000, internal link BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.5 BGP state = Established, up for 00:14:03 Last read 14:52:31, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Neighbor capabilities: 4 Byte AS: advertised and received Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new) Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received Message statistics: Inq depth is 0 Outq depth is 0 Sent Rcvd Opens: 1 1 Notifications: 0 0 Updates: 1 3 Keepalives: 16 15 Route Refresh: 0 0 Capability: 0 0 Total: 18 19 Minimum time between advertisement runs is 5 seconds For address family: IPv4 Unicast NEXT_HOP is always this router Community attribute sent to this neighbor(both) 3 accepted prefixes Connections established 1; dropped 0 Last reset never Local host: 10.0.0.1, Local port: 35258 Foreign host: 10.0.0.2, Foreign port: 179 Nexthop: 10.0.0.1 Nexthop global: fe80::202:ff:fe00:19 Nexthop local: :: BGP connection: non shared network Read thread: on Write thread: off
To see the details of a specific route such as from whom it was received, to whom it was sent, and so forth, use the
show ip bgp <ip address/prefix> command:
R7# show ip bgp 192.0.2.0 BGP routing table entry for 192.0.2.0/24 Paths: (2 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table) Not advertised to any peer Local 10.0.0.2 (metric 1) from 10.0.0.2 (0.0.0.10) Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best Originator: 0.0.0.10, Cluster list: 0.0.0.5 Last update: Mon Jul 8 10:12:17 2013 Local 192.0.2.2 (metric 1) from 192.0.2.2 (0.0.0.10) Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal Originator: 0.0.0.10, Cluster list: 0.0.0.6 Last update: Mon Jul 8 10:12:17 2013
This shows that the routing table prefix seen by BGP is 192.0.2.0/24, that this route was not advertised to any neighbor, and that it was heard by two neighbors, 10.0.0.2 and 192.0.2.2.
Here is another output of the same command, on a different node in the network:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh -c 'sh ip bgp 192.0.2.0' BGP routing table entry for 192.0.2.0/24 Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table) Advertised to non peer-group peers: 10.0.0.1 192.0.2.21 192.0.2.22 Local, (Received from a RR-client) 203.0.113.1 (metric 1) from 203.0.113.1 (0.0.0.10) Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best Last update: Mon Jul 8 09:07:41 2013
Debugging Tip: Logging Neighbor State Changes
It is very useful to log the changes that a neighbor goes through to troubleshoot any issues associated with that neighbor. This is done using the log-neighbor-changes command:
R7(config-router)# bgp log-neighbor-changes
The output is sent to the specified log file, usually
/var/log/quagga/bgpd.log, and looks like this:
2013/07/08 10:12:06.572827 BGP: %NOTIFICATION: sent to neighbor 10.0.0.2 6/3 (Cease/Peer Unconfigured) 0 bytes 2013/07/08 10:12:06.572954 BGP: Notification sent to neighbor 10.0.0.2: type 6/3 2013/07/08 10:12:16.682071 BGP: %ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.0.2.2 Up 2013/07/08 10:12:16.682660 BGP: %ADJCHANGE: neighbor 10.0.0.2 Up
Troubleshooting Link-local Addresses
To verify that
quagga learned the neighboring link-local IPv6 address via the IPv6 neighbor discovery router advertisements on a given interface, use the
show interface <if-name> command. If
ipv6 nd suppress-ra isn't enabled on both ends of the interface, then
Neighbor address(s): should have the other end's link-local address. That is the address that BGP would use when BGP is enabled on that interface.
vtysh to run
quagga, then verify the configuration:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21). Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al. R7# show interface swp1 Interface swp1 is up, line protocol is up PTM status: disabled Description: rut index 3 metric 1 mtu 1500 flags: <UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> HWaddr: 00:02:00:00:00:09 inet 220.127.116.11/24 broadcast 18.104.22.168 inet6 fe80::202:ff:fe00:9/64 ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds ND router advertisements are sent every 600 seconds ND router advertisements lifetime tracks ra-interval ND router advertisement default router preference is medium Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses. Neighbor address(s): inet6 fe80::4638:39ff:fe00:129b/128
Instead of the IPv6 address, the peering interface name is displayed in the
show ip bgp summary command and wherever else applicable:
R7# show ip bgp summary BGP router identifier 0.0.0.1, local AS number 65000 RIB entries 1, using 112 bytes of memory Peers 1, using 8712 bytes of memory Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd swp1 4 65000 161 170 0 0 0 00:02:28 0
Most of the show commands can take the interface name instead of the IP address, if that level of specificity is needed:
R7# show ip bgp neighbors <cr> A.B.C.D Neighbor to display information about WORD Neighbor on bgp configured interface X:X::X:X Neighbor to display information about R7# show ip bgp neighbors swp1
Enabling Read-only Mode
You can enable read-only mode for when the BGP process restarts or when the BGP process is cleared using
clear ip bgp *. When enabled, read-only mode begins as soon as the first peer reaches its established state and a timer for
<max-delay> seconds is started.
While in read-only mode, BGP doesn't run best-path or generate any updates to its peers. This mode continues until:
- All the configured peers, except the shutdown peers, have sent an explicit EOR (End-Of-RIB) or an implicit EOR. The first keep-alive after BGP has reached the established state is considered an implicit EOR. If the
<establish-wait>option is specified, then BGP will wait for peers to reach the established state from the start of the
<establish-wait>period is over; that is, the minimum set of established peers for which EOR is expected would be peers established during the
establish-waitwindow, not necessarily all the configured neighbors.
max-delayperiod is over.
Upon reaching either of these two conditions, BGP resumes the decision process and generates updates to its peers.
To enable read-only mode:
cumulus@switch:$ sudo bgp update-delay <max-delay in seconds> [<establish-wait in seconds>]
<max-delay> is 0 — the feature is off by default.
Use output from
show ip bgp summary for information about the state of the update delay.
This feature can be useful in reducing CPU/network usage as BGP restarts/clears. It's particularly useful in topologies where BGP learns a prefix from many peers. Intermediate best paths are possible for the same prefix as peers get established and start receiving updates at different times. This feature is also valuable if the network has a high number of such prefixes.
Applying a Route Map for Route Updates
You can apply a route map on route updates from BGP to Zebra. All the applicable match operations are allowed, such as match on prefix, next-hop, communities, and so forth. Set operations for this attach-point are limited to metric and next-hop only. Any operation of this feature does not affect BGPs internal RIB.
Both IPv4 and IPv6 address families are supported. Route maps work on multi-paths as well. However, the metric setting is based on the best path only.
To apply a route map for route updates:
cumulus@switch:$ sudo cl-bgp table-map <route-map-name>
Converging Quickly On Link Failures
In the Clos topology, we recommend that you only use interface addresses to set up peering sessions. This means that when the link fails, the BGP session is torn down immediately, triggering route updates to propagate through the network quickly. This requires the following commands be enabled for all links:
ttl-security hops <hops>.
ttl-security hops specifies how many hops away the neighbor is. For example, in a Clos topology, every peer is at most 1 hop away.
Here is an example:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21). Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al. R7# configure terminal R7(config)# interface swp1 R7(config-if)# link-detect R7(config-if)# exit R7(config)# router bgp 65000 R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 ttl-security hops 1
Converging Quickly On Soft Failures
It is possible that the link is up, but the neighboring BGP process is hung or has crashed. If a BGP process crashes, Quagga’s
watchquagga daemon, which monitors the various
quagga daemons, will attempt to restart it. If the process is also hung,
watchquagga will attempt to restart the process. BGP itself has a keepalive timer that is exchanged between neighbors. By default, this keepalive timer is set to 60 seconds. This time can be reduced to a lower number, but this has the disadvantage of increasing the CPU load, especially in the presence of a lot of neighbors.
keepalive-time is the periodicity with which the keepalive message is sent.
hold-time specifies how many keepalive messages can be lost before the connection is considered invalid. It is usually set to 3 times the keepalive time. Here is an example of reducing these timers:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 timers 30 90
We can make these the default for all BGP neighbors using a different command:
R7(config-router)# timers bgp 30 90
The following display snippet shows that the default values have been modified for this neighbor:
R7(config-router)# do show ip bgp neighbor 10.0.0.2 BGP neighbor is 10.0.0.2, remote AS 65000, local AS 65000, internal link BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.5 BGP state = Established, up for 05:53:59 Last read 14:53:25, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Configured hold time is 90, keepalive interval is 30 seconds ....
When you're in a configuration mode, such as when you're configuring BGP parameters, you can run any show command by adding do to the original command. For example,
do show ip bgp neighbor was shown above. Under a non-configuration mode, you'd simply run:
show ip bgp neighbor 10.0.0.2
A BGP process attempts to connect to a peer after a failure (or on startup) every
connect-time seconds. By default, this is 120 seconds. To modify this value, use:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 timers connect 30
This command has to be specified per each neighbor, peer-group doesn’t support this option in
BGP by default chooses stability over fast convergence. This is very useful when routing for the Internet. For example, unlike link-state protocols, BGP typically waits for a duration of
advertisement-interval seconds between sending consecutive updates to a neighbor. This ensures that an unstable neighbor flapping routes won’t be propagated throughout the network. By default, this is set to 30 seconds for an eBGP session and 5 seconds for an iBGP session. For very fast convergence, set the timer to 0 seconds. You can modify this as follows:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 advertisement-interval 0
The following output shows the modified value:
R7(config-router)# do show ip bgp neighbor 10.0.0.2 BGP neighbor is 10.0.0.2, remote AS 65000, local AS 65000, internal link BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.5 BGP state = Established, up for 06:01:49 Last read 14:53:15, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Configured hold time is 90, keepalive interval is 30 seconds Neighbor capabilities: 4 Byte AS: advertised and received Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new) Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received Message statistics: Inq depth is 0 Outq depth is 0 Sent Rcvd Opens: 1 1 Notifications: 0 0 Updates: 1 3 Keepalives: 363 362 Route Refresh: 0 0 Capability: 0 0 Total: 365 366 Minimum time between advertisement runs is 0 seconds ....
See this IETF draft for more details on the use of this value.
- Bidirectional forwarding detection (BFD) and BGP
- Wikipedia entry for BGP (includes list of useful RFCs)
- Quagga online documentation for BGP (may not be up to date)
- IETF draft discussing BGP use within data centers
Caveats and Errata
ttl-security does not cause the hardware to be programmed with the relevant information. This means that frames will come up to the CPU and be dropped there. It is recommended that you use the
cl-acltool command to explicitly add the relevant entry to hardware.
For example, you can configure a file, like
/etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/01control_plane_bgp.rules, with a rule like this for TTL:
INGRESS_INTF = swp1 INGRESS_CHAIN = INPUT, FORWARD [iptables] -A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p tcp --dport bgp -m ttl --ttl 255 POLICE --set-mode pkt --set-rate 2000 --set-burst 1000 -A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p tcp --dport bgp DROP
cl-acltool, see Netfilter (ACLs).