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Management VRF

Management VRF provides a separation between the out-of-band management network and the in-band data plane network. For all VRFs, the main routing table is the default table for all of the data plane switch ports. With management VRF, a second table, mgmt, is used for routing through eth0.

Cumulus RMP only supports eth0 as the management interface. VLAN subinterfaces, bonds, bridges and the front panel switch ports are not supported as management interfaces.

When management VRF is enabled, logins to the switch are set into the management VRF context. IPv4 and IPv6 networking applications run by an administrator communicate out the management network by default. This default context does not impact services run through systemd and the systemctl command, and does not impact commands examining the state of the switch; for example, using the ip command to list links, neighbors or routes.

The Hurricane2 ASIC used by the Penguin Arctica 4804IP-RMP switch that runs Cumulus RMP does not support VRF (virtual routing tables and forwarding).

Enabling Management VRF

To enable management VRF on eth0, complete the following steps:

  1. Configure management VRF on the switch.

    **Example Management VRF Configuration**
    
    The example NCLU commands below create a VRF called *mgmt*:
    
    <div class="confbox admonition admonition-note">
    
    <span class="admonition-icon confluence-information-macro-icon"></span>
    
    <div class="admonition-body">
    

    The management VRF must be named `mgmt` to differentiate from a data
    plane VRF.
    

    </div>
    
    </div>
    
        cumulus@switch:~$ net add vrf mgmt address 127.0.0.1/8
        cumulus@switch:~$ net add vrf mgmt vrf-table auto
        cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface eth0 vrf mgmt
        cumulus@switch:~$ net pending
        cumulus@switch:~$ net commit
    
    The NCLU commands above create the following snippets in
    `/etc/networking/interfaces:`
    
        auto mgmt
        iface mgmt
            address 127.0.0.1/8
            vrf-table auto
         
        auto eth0
        iface eth0 inet dhcp
            vrf mgmt
    

  2. Reboot the switch to activate the mgmt VRF:

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo reboot
    

Bringing the Management VRF Up after Downing It with ifdown

If you take down the management VRF using ifdown, to bring it back up you need to do one of two things:

  • Use ifup --with-depends <vrf>

  • Use ifreload -a

For example:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown mgmt
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup --with-depends mgmt

Enabling NTP

To enable NTP to run in the mgmt VRF:

  1. Configure the mgmt VRF as described in the Enabling Management VRF section above.

  2. If NTP is running, stop the service.

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl stop ntp.service
    

    By default, NTP is running in the default VRF, and to automatically
    start when the system boots; the NTP service needs to be stopped,
    disabled, and then restarted once the `mgmt` VRF is configured.
    

  3. Disable NTP from automatically starting in the default VRF:

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl disable ntp.service
    
  4. Start NTP in the mgmt VRF.

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl start ntp@mgmt
    
  5. Verify that NTP peers are active.

    cumulus@switch:~$ ntpq -pn
         remote           refid      st t when poll reach   delay   offset  jitter
    ==============================================================================
    *38.229.71.1     204.9.54.119     2 u   42   64  377   31.275   -0.625   3.105
    -104.131.53.252  209.51.161.238   2 u   47   64  377   16.381   -5.251   0.681
    +45.79.10.228    200.98.196.212   2 u   44   64  377   42.998    0.115   0.585
    +74.207.240.206  127.67.113.92    2 u   43   64  377   73.240   -1.623   0.320    
    
  6. Enable ntp@mgmt so it starts when the switch boots:

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl enable ntp@mgmt
    

Enabling snmpd

To enable snmpd to run in the mgmt VRF:

  1. Configure the mgmt VRF as described in the Enabling Management VRF section above.

  2. Stop the snmpd daemon if it is running.

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl stop snmpd.service
    
  3. Disable snmpd to ensure it does not try to start in the default VRF if the system is rebooted.

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl disable snmpd.service
    
  4. Start snmpd in the the mgmt VRF:

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl start snmpd@mgmt
    
  5. Enable snmpd@mgmt so it starts when the switch boots:

    cumulus@switch:~$ sudo systemctl enable snmpd@mgmt
    

Using ping or traceroute

By default, issuing a ping or traceroute assumes the packet should be sent to the dataplane network (the main routing table). If you wish to use ping or traceroute on the management network, use the -I flag for ping and -i for traceroute.

cumulus@switch:~$ ping -I mgmt

Or:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo traceroute -i mgmt

SNMP Traps Use eth0 Only

SNMP cannot use a switch port to send data. For any SNMP traps, this traffic gets sent out to eth0. Cumulus Networks plans to support switch ports in the future.

For SNMP, this restriction only applies to traps. SNMP polling is not affected.

Using SSH within a Management VRF Context

If you SSH to the switch through a switch port, it works as expected. If you need to SSH from the device out a switch port, use vrf exec default ssh <ip_address_of_swp_port>. For example:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vrf exec default ssh 10.23.23.2 10.3.3.3

Viewing the Routing Tables

When you look at the routing table with ip route show, you are looking at the switch port (main) table. You can also see the dataplane routing table with net route show vrf main.

To look at information about eth0 (the management routing table), use net route show vrf mgmt.

cumulus@switch:~$ net show route vrf mgmt
default via 192.168.0.1 dev eth0
 
 
cumulus@switch:~$ net show route
default via 10.23.23.3 dev swp17  proto zebra  metric 20
10.3.3.3 via 10.23.23.3 dev swp17
10.23.23.0/24 dev swp17  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.23.23.2
192.168.0.0/24 dev eth0  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.0.11

Viewing a Single Route

Note that if you use ip route get to return information about a single route, the command resolves over the mgmt table by default. To get information about the route in the switching silicon, use:

cumulus@switch:~$ net show route <addr>

To get the route for any VRF, run:

cumulus@switch:~$ net show route vrf mgmt <addr>

Using the mgmt Interface Class

In ifupdown2 interface classes are used to create a user-defined grouping for interfaces. The special class mgmt is available to separate the switch’s management interfaces from the data interfaces. This allows you to manage the data interfaces by default using ifupdown2 commands. Performing operations on the mgmt interfaces requires specifying the --allow-mgmt option, which prevents inadvertent outages on the management interfaces. Cumulus RMP by default brings up all interfaces in both the auto (default) class and the mgmt interface class when the switch boots.

You configure the management interface in /etc/network/interfaces. In the example below, the management interface, eth0, and the mgmt VRF stanzas are added to the mgmt interface class:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback 
  
allow-mgmt eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
    vrf mgmt
  
allow-mgmt mgmt
iface mgmt
    address 127.0.0.1/8
    vrf-table auto 

When you run ifupdown2 commands against the interfaces in the mgmt class, include –allow=mgmt with the commands. For example, to see which interfaces are in the mgmt interface class, run:

cumulus@switch:~$ ifquery l --allow=mgmt
eth0
mgmt 

To reload the configurations for interfaces in the mgmt class, run:

cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload --allow=mgmt

However, you can still bring the management interface up and down using ifup eth0 and ifdown eth0.

Management VRF and DNS

Cumulus RMP supports both DHCP and static DNS entries over management VRF through IP FIB rules. These rules are added to direct lookups to the DNS addresses out of the management VRF. However, nameservers configured through DHCP are automatically updated, while statically configured nameservers (configured in /etc/resolv.conf ) only get updated when you run ifreload -a.

Because DNS lookups are forced out of the management interface using FIB rules, this could affect data plane ports if there are overlapping addresses.