Traditional Bridge Mode
Cumulus Networks recommends you use a VLAN-aware bridge on your switch. You use traditional mode bridges only if you need to run more than one bridge on the switch or if you need to use PVSTP+.
Creating a Traditional Mode Bridge
You can configure a traditional mode bridge either using
or manually editing the
Using NCLU to Configure a Traditional Bridge
NCLU has limited support for configuring bridges in traditional mode.
The traditional bridge must be named something other than bridge, **** as that name is reserved for the single VLAN-aware bridge that you can configure on the switch.
The following example shows how to create a simple traditional mode bridge configuration on the switch, including adding the switch ports that are members of the bridge. You can choose to add one or more of the following elements to the configuration:
- You can add an IP address to provide IP access to the bridge interface.
- You can use glob syntax to specify a range of interfaces.
- You can set two STP attributes on the bridge ports: portautoedge and portrestrole.
The portautoedge attribute defaults to yes; to use a setting other than the default, you must set this attribute to no.
The portrestrrole attribute defaults to no, but to use a setting other than the default, you must specify this attribute without setting an option.
The defaults for these attributes do not appear in the NCLU configuration.
To configure a traditional mode bridge using NCLU, do the following:
cumulus@switch:~$ net add bridge my_bridge_A ports swp1-4 cumulus@switch:~$ net add bridge my_bridge_A ip address 10.10.10.10/24 cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp1 stp portautoedge no cumulus@switch:~$ net add interface swp2 stp portrestrrole cumulus@switch:~$ net pending cumulus@switch:~$ net commit
These commands create the following configuration snippet in the
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces ... auto swp1 iface swp1 mstpctl-portautoedge no auto swp2 iface swp2 mstpctl-portrestrrole yes auto swp3 iface swp3 auto swp4 iface swp4 ... auto my_bridge_A iface my_bridge_A address 10.10.10.10/24 bridge-ports swp1 swp2 swp3 swp4 bridge-vlan-aware no
Verify the configuration by running
net show config commands:
cumulus@switch:~$ net show config commands ... net add bridge my_bridge_A ip address 10.10.10.10/24 net add bridge my_bridge_A ports swp1,swp2,swp3,swp4 ... net add interface swp1 stp portautoedge no net add interface swp2 stp portrestrrole ...
Manually Configuring a Traditional Mode Bridge
To create a traditional mode bridge manually, you need to hand edit the
/etc/network/interfacesfile in a text editor.
Add a new stanza to create the bridge, and save the file. The example below creates a bridge with STP enabled and the MAC address ageing timer configured to a lower value than the default:
auto my_bridge iface my_bridge bridge-ports bond0 swp5 swp6 bridge-ageing 150 bridge-stp on
Configuration Option Description Default Value bridge-ports List of logical and physical ports belonging to the logical bridge. N/A bridge-ageing Maximum amount of time before a MAC addresses learned on the bridge expires from the bridge MAC cache. 1800 seconds bridge-stp Enables spanning tree protocol on this bridge. The default spanning tree mode is Per VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (PVRST).
For more information on spanning-tree configurations see Spanning Tree and Rapid Spanning Tree.
The name of the bridge must be:
- Compliant with Linux interface naming conventions.
- Unique within the switch.
Do not try to bridge the management port, eth0, with any switch ports (like swp0, swp1, and so forth). For example, if you created a bridge with eth0 and swp1, it will not work.
Reload the network configuration using the
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
You can configure multiple bridges, in order to logically divide a switch into multiple layer 2 domains. This allows for hosts to communicate with other hosts in the same domain, while separating them fro hosts in other domains.
You can create only one VLAN-aware bridge on a switch.
The diagram below shows a multiple bridge configuration, where host-1 and host-2 are connected to bridge-A, while host-3 and host-4 are connected to bridge-B. This means that:
- host-1 and host-2 can communicate with each other.
- host-3 and host-4 can communicate with each other.
- host-1 and host-2 cannot communicate with host-3 and host-4.
This example configuration looks like this in the
auto bridge-A iface bridge-A bridge-ports swp1 swp2 bridge-stp on auto bridge-B iface bridge-B bridge-ports swp3 swp4 bridge-stp on
Using Trunks in Traditional Bridge Mode
The IEEE standard for trunking is 802.1Q. The 802.1Q specification adds a 4 byte header within the Ethernet frame that identifies the VLAN of which the frame is a member.
802.1Q also identifies an untagged frame as belonging to the native VLAN (most network devices default their native VLAN to 1). The concept of native, non-native, tagged or untagged has generated confusion due to mixed terminology and vendor-specific implementations. Some clarification is in order:
- A trunk port is a switch port configured to send and receive 802.1Q tagged frames.
- A switch sending an untagged (bare Ethernet) frame on a trunk port is sending from the native VLAN defined on the trunk port.
- A switch sending a tagged frame on a trunk port is sending to the VLAN identified by the 802.1Q tag.
- A switch receiving an untagged (bare Ethernet) frame on a trunk port places that frame in the native VLAN defined on the trunk port.
- A switch receiving a tagged frame on a trunk port places that frame in the VLAN identified by the 802.1Q tag.
A bridge in traditional mode has no concept of trunks, just tagged or untagged frames. With a trunk of 200 VLANs, there would need to be 199 bridges, each containing a tagged physical interface, and one bridge containing the native untagged VLAN. See the examples below for more information.
The interaction of tagged and un-tagged frames on the same trunk often leads to undesired and unexpected behavior. A switch that uses VLAN 1 for the native VLAN may send frames to a switch that uses VLAN 2 for the native VLAN, thus merging those two VLANs and their spanning tree state.
To create the above example, add the following configuration to the
auto br-VLAN100 iface br-VLAN100 bridge-ports swp1.100 swp2.100 bridge-stp on auto br-VLAN200 iface br-VLAN200 bridge-ports swp1.200 swp2.200 bridge-stp on
VLAN Tagging Examples
You can find more examples of VLAN tagging in this chapter.
Configuring ARP Timers
Cumulus Linux does not often interact directly with end systems as much
as end systems interact with one another. Thus, after a successful
address resolution protocol
(ARP) places a neighbor into a reachable state, Cumulus Linux may not
interact with the client again for a long enough period of time for the
neighbor to move into a stale state. To keep neighbors in the reachable
state, Cumulus Linux includes a background process
/usr/bin/neighmgrd) that tracks neighbors that move into a stale,
delay or probe state, and attempts to refresh their state ahead of any
removal from the Linux kernel, and thus before it would be removed from
the hardware forwarding.
The ARP refresh timer defaults to 1080 seconds (18 minutes). You can change this setting by following the procedures outlined in this knowledge base article.